Latest environmental indicators
This page lists the indicators released by the Canadian Environmental Sustainability Indicators program. Subscribe to our e-updates to receive the latest indicators in your inbox or follow us on Facebook or Twitter #CdnEnv #Sustainability #Indicators
Greenhouse gases (GHGs) trap heat in the Earth's atmosphere – a process known as "the greenhouse effect." Increasing GHG emissions from human activity are linked to changes in the earth's climate which are having an impact on ecosystems, human health and the economy. The indicators report trends in GHG emissions nationally, per person and per unit gross domestic product, by province and territory, by economic sector and from large facilities.
Canada's total GHG emissions in 2015 were 722 megatonnes (Mt) of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2 eq), or 18% (111 Mt CO2 eq) above the 1990 emissions of 611 Mt CO2 eq. Emissions growth between 1990 and 2015 was driven primarily by increased emissions from mining and upstream oil and gas production as well as transport.
The Sustainable Fish Harvest indicator measures compliance with harvest limits as a measure of pressures on wild stocks. Harvest limits for wild fish and other marine animals protect these stocks for the future.
Of the 159 major stocks assessed in 2015:
- 152 stocks (96%) were harvested at levels considered to be sustainable; and
- 7 stocks (4%) were harvested above approved levels.
The proportion of fish stocks harvested at sustainable levels has improved since 2011, when 10% of stocks were overharvested. From 2012 to 2015, the proportion of overharvested stocks has remained below 5%.
Assessing the state of fish stocks is essential for conservation and to maintain prosperous commercial fisheries. Fisheries and Oceans Canada uses a variety of scientific methods to assess fish stock levels, and assigns one of three stock classifications (Healthy, Cautious or Critical). The status of different groups varies due to differences in population productivity, historical exploitation and resilience, among other factors.
Of 159 major fish stocks assessed in 2015:
- 78 stocks (49%) were classified as Healthy;
- 31 stocks (19%) were classified as Cautious;
- 19 stocks (12%) were classified as Critical; and
- The classification for 31 stocks (19%) was uncertain.
This indicator provides a view of the carbon dioxide emissions tied to the goods and services Canadians consume compared with emissions from good and services produced in Canada. It also provides a view of these emissions in an international context.
In 2011, Canada's consumption-based carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions were 579 megatonnes, or 8% above its production-based emissions. Since 2005, Canada has consistently been a net importer of CO2 emissions.
The indicator reports the number of invasive alien species found to have established in Canada since 2012, reported by year of establishment and regulatory status. Invasive alien species are a significant threat to biodiversity. In their new ecosystems, they become predators, competitors, parasites, hybridizers, and diseases of our native and domesticated plants and animals.
Between 2012 and 2015, no new invasive alien species were found to have become established in Canada. Currently, 254 species are being federally regulated to prevent their establishment in Canada, including 23 that have been regulated for the first time since January 2012.
Performance and Results
The indicator provides an overview of the projected greenhouse gas emissions in Canada until the year 2030. The indicator reflects the findings of the recently published Canada's 2016 Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reference Case by Environment and Climate Change Canada.
Canada's annual greenhouse gas emissions are expected to be between 697 and 790 megatonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent in 2030. The Canadian target for 2030 is 523 megatonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent. These projections are based on historical information up to 2014, as well as the future impacts of policies and measures put in place as of November 1, 2016.
The Canadian Environmental Sustainability Indicators program develops and regularly reports on a wide range of environmental indicators. These indicators are used to keep Canadians informed and up-to-date on the state and trends of environmental issues of concern. The indicators also track and report on the progress of the Federal Sustainable Development Strategy. Indicators from past releases are listed below.
- Air Quality
- International Comparison of Urban Air Quality
- Changes in Wildlife Species Disappearance Risks
- Species at Risk Population Trends
- Sea Ice in Canada
- Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS) in Fish and Water
- Reducing Phosphorus Loads to Lake Winnipeg
- Managing Metal Mining Effluent Quality in Canada
- Managing Pulp and Paper Effluent Quality in Canada
- Reducing Phosphorus Loads to Lake Simcoe and South-eastern Georgian Bay
- Restoring the Great Lakes Areas of Concern
- Releases of Harmful Substances to the Environment: Mercury, Lead, Cadmium
- Risk to Soil and Water Quality from Agriculture
- Wildlife Habitat Capacity on Agricultural Land
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